The ion exchange process removes unwanted ions from raw water by transferring them to a solid material, called an lon Exchanger, which accepts them while giving back an equivalent number of desirable species stored on the lon Exchanger skeleton. The Ion Exchanger has a limited capacity, called its exchange capacity, for storage of ions on its skeleton. Because of this, the lon Exchanger eventually becomes saturated with unwanted ions. It is then washed with a strong regenerating solution containing the desirable species of ions. These replace the accumulated undesirable ions, returning the exchange material to a usable condition. This operation is a cyclic chemical process, and the complete cycle usually includes backwash, regeneration, rinsing, and service.